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Dates of visit:
September 15 - 30, 2009

We rate this trip a:

Trip Highlights:
 Meeting Cousins
 Historic Berlin
 Karkonosze Forest
 Town of Kozuchow
 Town of Nowy Sol
 Town of Zielona Gora
 City of Wroclaw
 Wang Church
 Kowary Mine
 Klotzko Fortress
 Ladek Zdroj


[ Home ] [ Travel Page ] [ Trip ] [ Part 1 ] [ Part 3 ] [ Part 4 ] [ Part 5 ] [ Part 6 ]
Intro Page - Introduction to trip
Part 1 of trip - Berlin, Germany
Part 3 of trip - Lower Silesia, Boleslawiec City, Karkonosze and Zamek Chojnik
Part 4 of trip - Szklarska Poreba, Vang Church, Hauptmann & Hofman Houses
Part 5 of trip - Kowary, Klodzko Fortress, Ladek-Zdrój, Bear Cave, Ksiaz Castle
Part 6 of trip - Wroclaw + Panorama, Zagan + Stalag Luft III, Military Museum
Background on Region Visited

This segment of our trip began in Berlin where we (Edward and Laurentiu) were picked up by our cousins and driven to Poland, where we would meet the rest of the family. It was our intention to spend the majority of our time in the Lubuskie (voivodeship) region exploring its many attractions but spending time primarily getting to know the family.

For first time visitors to this site and to Poland in general, we encourage you to understand something about this country ... its history, geography, and its people. To that end we recommend that you visit this site ...

Lubuskie Coat of ArmsThe region of Poland we are visiting, called Lubuskie Voivodeship (also known as Lubusz Province, or by its Polish name of województwo lubuskie or simply Lubuskie) is a voivodeship (province) in western Poland. It was created on January 1, 1999, out of the former Gorzów Wielkopolski and Zielona Góra Voivodeships, pursuant to the Polish local government reforms adopted in 1998. The province's name recalls the historic Lubusz Land (Lebus or Lubus), although part of the voivodeship in fact belongs to the historic region of Silesia.

The region is mainly flat, with many lakes and woodlands. In the south, around Zielona Góra, grapes are cultivated.

For more information about this province visit ... Lubusz Voivodeship

Added ... July 2011

Nowa Sól County
Since our return in 2009 from meeting our cousins and exploring theirs and nearby communities in Poland,and subsequently posting our travel experiences on our family web site, we have been continually barraged with numerous questions about this region. Because of its regional significance and storied history, family,friends and web site visitors persisted in learning from us more details, details that gave a deeper insight into the area’s medieval history and its progression through the following centuries. Of particular interest was learning specifics of the recent past, at least from the beginning of the 19th century to the end of the Second World War, with particular emphasis on the German influences that shaped this region.

In each and every instance, we made a conscious attempt to answer each query with a brief summary that we hoped would do justice to the probing. However, over time, this became tedious and laborious as we had to literally repeat ourselves. As such, we opted to devote time to compiling a condensed historic summary of what we could learn about this region and record our research into a number of documents that would be available to answer inquiries.

This process began in early 2010, and over the past 12 months we probed, authenticated, and consolidated our findings (principally translating our research from Polish to English) and finally combining it with our 2009 visitation to produce what we believe is an adequate perspective of the region and towns that are the nucleus of this area.

The summaries that we produced deal principally with:

To download without opening in Adobe Reader ... right-click item, then "Save Link as ..."

Historic backgrounds combined with archival photos next to our 2009 imagery for comparison should appeal to a reader bent on acquiring some chronicles of a region with strong links to the past. For an inquiring mind,it should make for a compelling read.Article is divided into four parts with each part being send separately. Any feedback is deeply appreciated. Article is entirely in English with some notations in Polish as a reference.

Meeting Family

The family is introduced with these brief bios ...

Tomasz RuzylowiczTomasz Stefan Ruzylowicz
Short Biography

Danuta RuzylowiczDanuta (Igras) Ruzylowicz
Short Biography

Danuta RuzylowiczMarta Anna Ruzylowicz
Short Biography

Krystyna RuzylowiczKrystyna Felicja Ruzylowicz
Short Biography

Family Reception Dinner

The first evening in Kozuchow, we were hosted by the entire family to a reception dinner. The gallery below shows the family gathering.

Reception Dinner
Dinner Dinner Dinner
Dinner Dinner Dinner
Dinner Dinner Dinner
Dinner Dinner Dinner
Dinner Dinner Dinner
Dinner Dinner Dinner
Towns and Cities of Lubuskie

Town of Kozuchow

Some important maps of Kozuchow ...

1 ...
Location of Kozuchow on Poland's Map
2 ... Location relative to German border
3 ... Location relative to neighboring towns
4 ... Kozuchow Gmina ("commune" or "municipality")
5 ... Town of Kozuchow Plat ... metro ... city ... city center

Kozuchow Coat of ArmsKozuchów is nice, but totally neglected in its old town. The historic part of town is a set of architectural and urban houses dating back to the twelfth century. The church, castle and town hall are notable remnants, quite well-preserved walls surround the old part of town. This urban city is covered by the protection of Lubuskie Voivodship Conservator of Monuments.

A large part of the town falls within a "protection restoration zone," which significantly impedes investment in this part of town.

Several major landmarks are notable in Kozuchów:

City HallTown Hall - the oldest KOZUCHOWSKI Town Hall, from the fourteenth century, was probably a wooden building, which burned during the fire of 1488. The next town hall was built in the late Gothic style in 1489 as a two-storied brick building. It was rebuilt many times in the years 1554, 1637, 1769 due to subsequent fires in the city. In the nineteenth century it was reconstructed back into it neoclassical character. During World War II, the town hall was destroyed. Again, it was rebuilt in the years 1963-1969 on the remains of the walls … on the north side in the Gothic style and nineteenth-century neoclassical on the east wall, resulting in a modern contemporary architecture. The gothic city hall tower was also rebuilt after the collapse in 1963.

St. MaryParish church - St. Mary - was built in the thirteenth century as a modest stone, one-nave building (according to legend it was created in 1125). Repeated reconstruction, modernization and expansion resulted in the church seen today … a building with stone and brick. The main block of the church is maintained in the Gothic style, the tower and its roof present the Baroque dome of the nave, and the chancel was rebuilt during the Renaissance.

CastleCastle - built as a residence in the fourteenth century and had a different purpose with each subsequent owner. The castle was the residence of a prince, a Carmelites monastery, and seat of the finest armory. The long-Gothic tower was rebuilt and set into the west wing and the whole castle was rebuilt by the recent owners of the castle - the Carmelite convent.

LapidaryLapidary - founded in the seventeenth century. Within its perimeter walls are located over 200 historic tombstones from the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This lapidary, representing an evangelical cemetery, is considered to be the most beautiful in Poland.

House StreetHouse Street - on the historic house is preserved a richly decorated facade, depicting reliefs of St. Peter and Paul. The facade dates from the eighteenth century.

Defensive WallsDefensive walls - the first stonewalls were built in the late thirteenth and fourteenth century and surrounded by a 20 meter wide moat. In the fifteenth century, a ring of fortifications was built. Entry to the city was through three gates (Glogowska, Sagan and Krosnienska), and since the second half of the fifteenth century, by 4 gates; all were demolished in 1819.

Krosnienska TowerKrosnienska Tower - in the north-west of the city sits another gateway. This is a three-story stone tower, which deployed shooting holes. Part of the tower was rebuilt into apartment, and includes the Regional Chamber where collected memorabilia and exhibits of Kozuchów are displayed.

ResidentialResidential - in the old part of Kozuchów are over 270 historic houses of the period from the 16th to the early 20th century.

RynekRynek - of the houses in the Rynek - some portals preserve facades of the Renaissance period.

Tower of the Protestant church - standing alone in the vicinity of Old Town. Built in the years 1709-1710 and located outside the city walls, that in accordance with the times' condition (like all other Protestant churches,) had no tower. Tower (preserved today) was built only in 1826. After World War II, the church served a congregation until 1950. In 1968 the church was demolished; the tower survived and still stands to this day.

Water tower - was founded in 1908, the highest point in town (111.80 m) at ul. Szprotawskiej. It is a clinker brick building with a height of 38.90 m, referring to a style of medieval defensive architecture. Tapering towards the top core, it is built on the set of circles. Tower continues to be used as intended.

History of Kozuchow: Brief History of Kozuchow

Official city web site (Polish): Town of Kozuchow (English option available)
Site Gallery - Kozuchow
General Views of Kozuchow
Kozuchow Kozuchow Kozuchow
Kozuchow Kozuchow Kozuchow
Defensive Walls
Defensive Walls Defensive Walls Defensive Walls
Defensive Walls Defensive Walls Defensive Walls
Rynek (Central Square)
Rynek Rynek Rynek
Rynek Rynek Rynek
Rynek Rynek Rynek
Zamek (Castle)
Zamek Zamek Zamek
Zamek Zamek Zamek
Izba (Regional Museum)
Izba Izba Izba
Izba Izba Izba
Izba Izba Izba
Lapidarium Lapidarium Lapidarium
Lapidarium Lapidarium Lapidarium
Lapidarium Lapidarium Lapidarium
Kozuchow at Night
Night Night Night
Night Night Night
Night Night Night
Town of Nowa Sol

Some important maps of Nowa Sol ...

1 ...
Location of Nowa Sol on Poland's Map
2 ... Location relative to neighboring towns
3 ... Town of Nowa Sol Plat ... city center ... port

Nowa Sol Coat of ArmsNowa Sól (German: Neusalz an der Oder) is a town on the Oder River in Lubusz Voivodeship. It is the capital of Nowa Sól County and had a population of approximately 40,351.

Brief History ... The first settlement in the region of modern Nowa Sól dates to the 14th century, when the territory was under Bohemian sovereignty. In order to break Silesia's dependency on salt from Poland, Emperor Ferdinand I founded the demesne land Zum Neuen Saltze in 1563.The sea salt, originally from La Rochelle and the Iberian coast, was transported from Hamburg and Stettin (Szczecin) along the navigable Oder. A flood in 1573 led to the relocation of the salt refinery to the nearby village of Modritz (Modrzyca); the office of the administrator is now the town hall.

Salt warehouseThe settlement was documented as Neusalzburg ("New Salzburg") in 1585 and later as Neusalz ("New Salt"). A trading harbor was built on the Oder in 1592. The Protestant Church of St. Michael, built from 1591-97, was converted to Roman Catholicism in 1654. The salt warehouse (left) is the only one in Poland left from that period.

The entrance of Dutch and English merchants in the Baltic Sea at the end of the 16th century led to difficulties in the supply of unrefined salt. The unprofitable enterprise was also hampered by tolls on the Oder imposed by the Margraviate of Brandenburg. Salt refining in Neusalz nearly collapsed during the Thirty Years' War (1618-48), while recovery was hampered by the salt trade of Brandenburg and Poland afterwards. As the rulers of Swedish Pomerania, Sweden prevented salt from reaching the town from Stettin in 1710. Three years later Neusalz became an outpost for salt from Magdeburg and Halle.

Nowa Sol PortNeusalz developed into one of the largest ports on the Silesian Oder and handled the majority of salt traffic on the river. It was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1742 according to the Treaty of Breslau. When King Frederick II of Prussia granted Neusalz town rights on 9 October 1743 and initiated plans to expand the town, it had 97 houses. After the Battle of Kunersdorf, Neusalz was plundered on 24 September 1759. Forty houses were burned down, as was the Moravian community, which was restored in 1763.

The modern industrial development began in the 19th century when new factories, especially linen factories and steelworks, were opened. Neusalz was first connected to the Silesian railway in 1871, the same year the town became part of the German Empire during the unification of Germany. Expansion and modernization of the harbor began on 11 October 1897. Neusalz became part of the Prussian Province of Lower Silesia in 1919. A wooden bridge across the Oder, originally built in 1870, was rebuilt using reinforced concrete in 1932.

During World War II Neusalz was the site of a labor camp belonging to the Gross-Rosen concentration camp. German troops destroyed the concrete bridge on 9 February 1945, but the Soviet Red Army entered Neusalz on 13/14 February 1945. A number of buildings burned down, including the Catholic Church. The town was placed under Polish administration, according to the post-war Potsdam Conference, and renamed Nowa Sól. Germans remaining in the town were expelled and replaced with Poles.

Nowa Sól was rebuilt as an industrial and administrative center, superseding nearby Kozuchów. From 1975-98 it was in the Zielona Gora Voivodeship, after which it became part of the Lubusz Voivodeship. The town is featured in the documentary, 5000 Miles, about a family from Wisconsin in the United States, wishing to adopt a Polish child.

Flood markerFlood of 1997 ... The flood that occurred in the summer of 1997 in Poland, affecting the drainage basins of the Odra and the Vistula, caused 54 fatalities and material losses of the order of billions of US$. The flood struck a large part of the country and caused inundation of 665,000 ha of land. The number of evacuees was 162 thousand. The rhetoric commonly used in Poland refers to the Great Flood of 1997 as an event whose scale exceeded all imagination about the possible size of the disaster. Indeed, historic maxima of river stage and flow rate were considerably exceeded. From the hydrological point of view, this flood was a very rare event, with a return period in some river cross-sections of the order of a thousand years and more.

The Odra is the second largest river in Poland, after the Vistula (Wisla), both in regard to its length of 854 km, and the area of its drainage basin, 118,861 km2, of which 742 km and 106,056 km2 respectively are in Poland. Its source is in the Sudety Mountains in the Czech Republic. With a length of approximately 162 km, part of the Odra forms part of the border between Poland and Germany. In its upstream course, the Odra has the features of a highland river, while in the middle and downstream course, it flows through lowlands. A map of the drainage basin of the Odra is presented here. A number of big towns are located upon the Odra, most of which (such as Opole, Wroclaw, Glogôw, Nowa Sól, Slubice and Szczecin), are in Poland, while Ostrava and Frankfurt/Oder are situated in the Czech Republic and the Federal Republic of Germany, respectively.

Official city web site (Polish): Town of Nowa Sol (English option available)
Site Gallery - Nowa Sol
River and Port
Kozuchow Kozuchow Kozuchow
General Views of Nowa Sol
Nowa Sol Nowa Sol Nowa Sol
Nowa Sol Nowa Sol Nowa Sol
Nowa Sol Nowa Sol Nowa Sol
Town of Zielona Gora

Some important maps of Zielona Gora ...

1 ...
Location of Zielona Gora on Poland's Map
2 ... Location relative to neighboring towns
3 ... Town of Zielona Gora Plat ... aerial 1 ... aerial 2

Zielona Gora Coat of ArmsZielona Góra (German: Grünberg in Schlesien) is a city in Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland, with ~120,000 inhabitants within the city limits and ~300,000 inhabitants within the metropolitan area, including three neighboring counties.

Zielona Góra has been in Lubusz Voivodeship since 1999, prior to which it was the capital of Zielona Góra Voivodeship from 1975-98. It is the seat of Lubusz Voivodeship's elected assembly (sejmik) and executive (the seat of the governor). The city's name, in both Polish and German, means "Green Mountain."

Zielona Gora SettlementHistory … The first settlement in the area of Zielona Góra was built in the valley near the Zlota Lacza stream during the reign of Mieszko I. The oldest settlement was agricultural and later developed into a trading point along routes from Poznan to Zagan and further to Luzyce. The written records of the Slavic settlement date to 1222 and an increase of its population by Henryk Brodaty. Other documents date the settlement to 1302.

In 1163, the emperor established Upper Silesia and Lower Silesia and granted duchies as fiefs to be ruled by Silesian Dukes. Many German artisans came to build cities and churches. The region received further influx of German burghers in the second half of the 13th century during the medieval Ostsiedlung. The settlement became a city with Crossener Recht, a variation of Magdeburg rights, in 1323. The earliest mention of the town's coat of arms is from 1421. A document in the town archive dating from before 1400 used a sigil with the name GRVNINBERG, an early form of the German name Grünberg.

In 1294 Henry III, Duke of Silesia-Glogau, founded a church in honor of Saint Hedwig, patron saint of Silesia. This building, today called the konkatedra Sw. Jadwigi w Zielonej Górze, is the oldest building in the city. A wooden castle near the city, built ca. 1272, was the residence of Duke John of Steinau from 1358-65; John had ceded his lands to Henry V, Duke of Glogau. In 1477, the town defeated a 5,000-strong army from neighboring Brandenburg that attempted to seize it during the succession war to the Duchy of Glogau. In 1488 John II, Duke of Sagan, destroyed the castle to prevent his enemies from using it.

Zielona Gora Settlement - 15th centuryAfter the collapse of the Duchy of Sagan, the town fell to the Kingdom of Bohemia, a state of the Holy Roman Empire. Grünberg converted to Lutheranism during the Protestant Reformation. The city declined during the seventeenth century, especially during the Thirty Years' War (1618-48) and following decades. Grünberg endured plundering, debts, emigration of burghers, and fires. In 1651 during the Counter Reformation, the Habsburg Monarchy of Austria reintroduced Roman Catholicism and suppressed Protestantism. The city was subjected to heavy Germanisation and German artisans banned Poles from attending any practice allowing them to work as members of guilds. A rebellion caused by conscription ended with many Poles being imprisoned.

The city was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia by the 1742 Treaty of Breslau that ended the First Silesian War. The Prussians introduced religious toleration, leading to the construction of the Protestant parish church Zum Garten Christ from 1746-47; Catholic Poles were later discriminated against, however. The city's textile industry was booming by the end of the 18th century, and by 1800 large parts of the citywalls had been dismantled to allow the city to expand. The textile industry suffered during the 1820s while adjusting to the Industrial Revolution and an import ban by the Russian Empire. The city's economy began to recover after many clothiers immigrated to Congress Poland.

During industrialization, many Germans from the countryside moved to large industrial cities and large number of Poles came to German cities to work as well. The Polish population was pushed by Germanisation to rural villages, although some remained in the town contributed to the economic revival of the city. A Polish church remained functional until 1809 and a Polish artisans association (Towarzystwo Polskich Rzemieslników) was established by Kazimierz Lisowski in 1898.

Since 1816 after the Napoleonic Wars, Grünberg was administered within the district Landkreis Grünberg i. Schles., in the Province of Silesia. In 1871, it became part of the German Empire during the unification of Germany. English industrialists purchased some of the city's textile factories during the 1870s and 1880s. By 1885, most of Grünberg's populations of ~ 14,400 were Protestants.

In 1919, Grünberg became part of the Province of Lower Silesia within Weimar Germany. On 1 April 1922, it became a district-free city, but this status was revoked on 1 October 1933 while part of Nazi Germany.

Zielona Gora Settlement - 20th centuryThe Soviet Red Army occupied Grünberg with little fighting in 1945 during World War II. It was placed under Polish administration, followed by the post-war Potsdam Agreement. The remaining German inhabitants who had not fled from the Eastern Front were expelled by Soviet and Polish troops, and the town was partly resettled with Poles transferred from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union. The city was officially renamed from the German name Grünberg to the Polish name Zielona Góra, and the 18th century Protestant church was reconsecrated as a Catholic church (Kosciól Matki Boskiej Czestochowskiej).

The University of Zielona Góra was opened in 2001. The city is also the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Zielona Góra-Gorzów.

More information on city (Wikipedia): Zielona Gora
Official city web site (Polish): Town of Zielona Gora (English option available)
Site Gallery - Zielona Gora
General Views of Zielona Gora
Zielona Gora Zielona Gora Zielona Gora
Zielona Gora Zielona Gora Zielona Gora
Zielona Gora Zielona Gora Zielona Gora
Zielona Gora Museum
Zielona Gora Museum Zielona Gora Museum Zielona Gora Museum
Zielona Gora Museum Zielona Gora Museum Zielona Gora Museum
Zielona Gora Museum - Motorcycles
Zielona Gora Museum Zielona Gora Museum Zielona Gora Museum
Zielona Gora Museum Zielona Gora Museum Zielona Gora Museum
Zielona Gora Museum - Wine
Zielona Gora Museum Zielona Gora Museum Zielona Gora Museum
Zielona Gora Museum - Torture
Zielona Gora Museum Zielona Gora Museum Zielona Gora Museum
Zielona Gora Museum - Stained Glass
Zielona Gora Museum Zielona Gora Museum Zielona Gora Museum
Zielona Gora Botanical Garden
Zielona Gora Botanical Zielona Gora Botanical Zielona Gora Botanical
Zielona Gora Ethnographic Museum
Zielona Gora Ethnographic Zielona Gora Ethnographic Zielona Gora Ethnographic
Zielona Gora Ethnographic Zielona Gora Ethnographic Zielona Gora Ethnographic
Zielona Gora Ethnographic Zielona Gora Ethnographic Zielona Gora Ethnographic
Zielona Gora Ethnographic Zielona Gora Ethnographic Zielona Gora Ethnographic
Town of Bytom Odrzanski

Some important maps of Bytom Odrzanski ...

1 ...
Location of Bytom Odrzanski on Poland's Map
2 ... Location relative to neighboring towns (SE of Nowa Sol)
3 ... Town of Bytom Odrzanski Plat ... map

Bytom Odrzanski Coat of ArmsBytom Odrzanski is over 900 years old. Its history is complex and convoluted. Only a "quiet period" of the 19th century enabled the inhabitants of a normal life. Since the 18th century, the Bytom economy was dominated by agriculture, growing hops and grapes. In the mid-19th century, Bytom was a major wine producer in Silesia. The city's economy, however, remained in the shadow of the faster-growing center, Nowa Sól. At the beginning of the 19th century, the town got a railway connection with Glogów and Nowa Sól. From 1884, there was nearby active coal mining. In 1907, an iron bridge over the Oder River completed. Larger plants emerged together with urban gasworks and some smaller industrial businesses. In the 20th century, the river port was modernized and expanded and thus began construction of a new residential area - along the road to Ko?uchów.

In the early thirties, reinforced concrete shelters were built in anticipation of war with Germany. In the early years of World War II, the city was not involved in military operations. In mid-January 1945, the population was evacuated and the city turned into a point of resistance. On February 13, 1945, the town was overrun by Soviet troops. During the battle the bridge on the Oder and several residential buildings were destroyed. Greater damage to buildings was caused to the city by the post-war Soviet troops. Their demolition to obtain building materials for reconstruction destroyed many towns of Central Poland. In the summer of 1945, the first Polish settlers appeared in Bytom, who organized a Polish administration. Until 1945, the official name of the city was Beuthen an der Oder; in Polish, it was named Bialobrzezie. Since 1947, the current name is used.

Official city web site (Polish): Bytom Odrzanski

Site Gallery - Bytom Odrzanski
Bytom Odrzanski at Night
Bytom Odrzanski Bytom Odrzanski Bytom Odrzanski
Bytom Odrzanski Bytom Odrzanski Bytom Odrzanski
Bytom Odrzanski Bytom Odrzanski Bytom Odrzanski
Bytom Odrzanski Bytom Odrzanski Bytom Odrzanski
Bytom Odrzanski Bytom Odrzanski Bytom Odrzanski
Expulsion of Germans from Poland

The matter of German occupation and the eventual expulsion of Germans from western Poland, mentioned frequently on this page, should be understood in its full historic form. To aid the reader in understanding this complex subject we have compiled two articles that explain these phenomena. These articles are available at …

Curzon-Oder Neisse-Lines ...
Read article
Expulsions of Germans ... Read article

Resettlement of the Population by Horse and Wagon

This is a corrollary piece to the expulsions of Germans from western Poland at the conclusion of WWII. How ethnic Germans were expelled from (present day) western Ukraine, known as Galicia, in 1939-1940.

For us Galizien Germans the turn of the century means that now 60 years has passed since the resettlement in January 1940. With it the 160 year old existence of the German settlements in East Galicia ended. This is a reason to remember the earlier homeland and the resettlement. Much is written and reported about the resettlement; for example, in the publications of the Hilfskommittee der Galizien Germans, in the book of local history and geography … Aufbruch und Neubeginn (Departure and New Beginning), and in the Zeitweiser … Das Heilige Band. Dr. Müller investigated the prehistory of the resettlement. There are also several single reports about the trek; however, there is no complete overview about the trek, that is, the departure of the people from East Galicia by horse and wagon.

In the non-aggression pact between Germany and the USSR of August 23, 1939, which is generally called the Hitler-Stalin pact, the two countries agreed to abstain from use of force, aggressive action, or attack against one another.

In a secret supplementary protocol from August 23, 1939, the division of Europe into German and Soviet zones of influence was likewise agreed upon. With this agreement, the fate of the Galizien Germans was decided.

.... more. Read the complete story, at times reported by the actual participants to this exodus, in the article below.

Resettlement of the Population (English) ...
Read article

Przesiedlenie ludnosci (Po polsku) ... Przeczytaj artykul
(najlepsze tlumaczenie, przepraszamy za wszelkie bledy gramatyczne)

Material source:
GALIZIEN GERMAN DESCENDANTS, Journals of January 2010 and April 2010


A family member whose family was impacted by this relocation, although later in 1945, commented on the above article. His commentary is offered below.

Feedback (Polish and English)
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